What does referencing include?
A. In-text citations, that could take three forms:
- Paraphrasing, where you maintain the author’s >B that is original. A reference list at the final end of one’s essay, which include details such as for example:
- Date of publication
- Publisher and put of publication (for books)
- Journal name, issue and volume(for journals)
- Internet address or doi (digital object >
Referencing is integral to academic essay writing and really shouldn’t be considered as an ‘add-on’. If you are referencing, always use a referencing guide to help you ensure 100% accuracy.
Normally, when writing an essay at university you’ll be expected to only use sources that are academic. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to determine whether an external source is academic or otherwise not.
The chocolate essay uses the APA type of referencing, which can be simple to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, because the format is significantly diffent:
|try to achieve a balance between both types of in text-references in your essay writing.|
When you look at the APA style of referencing, the reference list has certain conventions that you need to also follow. Below are a few examples through the chocolate essay:
|Don’t make referencing something you are doing in the same way an editing or proofreading activity. Include your in-text citations and reference list in the first draft.|
An excellent web site to assistance with your APA referencing may be the APA Interactive tool at Massey University.
Leave yourself time that is enough glance at your essay more often than once. For a 1000 word essay you’ll need at the very least 3 days to redraft your essay.
|Always save each draft as a separate file; you’ll be able to see how your essay develops and improves.|
Here you will find the kinds of questions you should ask yourself:
You may have a look at other checklists such as this one on editing your personal work.
Let’s see how the composer of the chocolate essay redrafted their original introduction:
Now compare the aforementioned because of the draft that is final
Since Spanish explorers brought back chocolate from the “” new world “”, chocolate consumption is now a phenomenon that is worldwide. To start with, chocolate, a derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a glass or two, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form. However, chocolate’s popularity that is inherent not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested because of the title. The realities of chocolate tend to be more down seriously to earth; a true number of the realities should be addressed in this article. Chocolate has chemical properties that will influence mood and there’s possible evidence for some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Yet, such attributes that are positive counterbalanced somewhat by the argument that, in certain instances, chocolate may very well be a drug rather than a food. Moreover, you have the possibility of some correlation between over-consumption of obesity and chocolate. Thus, it will likely be argued that despite chocolate’s positive effect in some cases on mood plus the cardiovascular system it has additionally been connected to addiction and obesity.
Take your time and get careful when redrafting—it will be worth it!
How do you write in an way that is academic?
Your lecturers would want to hear your ‘voice’ as they read your essay.
Imagine your essay as a type or kind of story. You may be the storyteller that is principal the interior voice regarding the writer, leading your reader through to your conclusion.
Through the whole story, there are different voices that appear every once in awhile. These are the external voices (citations) that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for just what you will be saying or even giving an perspective that is alternative. The external voices can be split into two categories in your essay: the direct external voice of an author (through a direct quote) together with indirect external voice of an author (through a paraphrase).
Your reader needs to know after all times whose voice these are typically hearing. Is it your internal voice or even the external voice of other authors?
You may wonder how you can include your very own voice but still sound academic when you’re currently talking about a subject area in that you’ve little (or no) knowledge. Including your voice does not always mean that you ought to say ‘I think’ or ‘in my opinion’.
Here are some samples of the critical/analytical language which you can use as your own internal voice whenever you present other people’s ideas:
|when you’re drafting your paragraphs, use a colour-coding system like usually the one used here. It helps you make sure your academic voice is that is clear|
You will gradually expand the language of your critical internal voice when you get more confident in using external sources. The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides samples of a few more expressions to use when assessing sources that are external.
Editing centers on the big picture elements such as overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and if the question has been answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the facts of your essay, such as formatting, punctuation and grammar.
Everybody has their very own personal form of editing and proofreading. You ought to concentrate on the kinds of errors you commonly make by looking at the marker’s comments on the previous work.
Some individuals proofread alone; some get other folks involved. Having others involved is a idea that is really good.